Investment Opportunities in India

May 3, 2013

Scenario of pharmaceutical market in India

The pharmaceutical industry in India is most progressive and advanced among all the developed and developing countries. The industry has provided great employment opportunities to thousands of people, apart from contributing greatly towards the Indian economy.

Today, India is among the top five pharmaceutical emerging markets in the world. The market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14-17 per cent over 2012-16. The total revenues of the market stood at US$ 11 billion and are estimated to be US$ 74 billion by 2020.

Growth in the sector

  • Pharma sector in India is growing at a rapid pace, marked by a number of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and growth in foreign expenditure. The sector is going to be a major area of focus in the coming years as Indian medicines are increasingly becoming popular in many parts of the world because of the cost effectiveness and easy availability. The manufacturing cost of Indian pharma companies is up to 65 per cent lower than that of US firms and almost half of that of the European manufacturers.
  • The domestic pharmaceutical market is expected to register a strong double-digit growth of 13-14 per cent in 2013 on back of increasing sales of generic medicines, continued growth in chronic therapies and a greater penetration in rural markets.
  • The growth of healthcare sector also provides huge opportunities for investing in India’s pharma space. The growing network of private and public hospitals in the country generates a huge demand for industrial cleaning equipment, waste management, hygiene products and laundry solutions.

Pharmaceutical exports

The Ministry of Commerce has targeted Indian pharma sector exports of US$ 25 billion by 2014 at an annual growth rate of 25 per cent.

Last year, the industry registered exports of US$ 13 billion at a growth rate of 30 per cent, as per Dr P.V. Appaji, Director-General, Pharmaceutical Exports Council of India (Pharmexcil). The Government has also planned a ‘Pharma India’ brand promotion action plan spanning over a three-year period to give an impetus to generic exports.

FDI inflows

The cumulative drugs and pharmaceuticals industry in India attracted foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows worth US$ 10,308.75 million during April 2000 to February 2013, according to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)

Recent initiatives

The Department of Pharmaceuticals has prepared a ‘Pharma Vision 2020’ document for making India one of the leading destinations for end-to-end drug discovery and innovation and for that purpose, the department provides requisite support by way of world class infrastructure, internationally competitive scientific manpower for pharma research and development (R&D), venture fund for research in the public and private domain and such other measures.

Pharmexcil has removed the need for overseas investors to get a no-objection from their joint venture (JV) partner before venturing out on their own or roping in another local firm. This will promote the competitiveness of India as an investment destination and be instrumental in attracting higher levels of FDI and technology inflows into the country.

FDI policies

  • FDI, up to 100 per cent, under the automatic route, is permitted for green field investments (when a company establishes a subsidiary in a new country and starts its own production) in pharmaceutical sector in India
  • FDI, up to 100 per cent, under the government approval route, is permitted for brown field investments (when company purchases an existing plant or firm, rather than construction of a new plant)
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March 20, 2013

Indian retail market opened more doors for NRIs

The recent wave of reforms by the Government to incentivise foreign direct investment (FDI) in various sectors is bringing a new zeal to the investment options in India. One of the most debated reforms is the policy for allowing 51 per cent FDI in multi brand retail.

Retail Market in India

The Indian retail industry has experienced growth of 10.6 per cent between 2010 and 2012 and is expected to increase to US$ 750-850 billion by 2015. Food and Grocery is the largest category within the retail sector with 60 per cent share followed by Apparel and Mobile segment.

Within the organised retail sector, Apparel is the largest segment. “Food and Grocery” and “Mobile and telecom” are the other major contributors to this segment.

Evolution of the FDI policy in multi brand retail

The Government of India had been considering opening up the multi brand retail sector to FDI for some time. They had released a discussion paper in 2010 on the topic and had extensively gathered public, academic and industry views on the issue. In November 2011, the Government came out with its proposal for the new FDI policy. However, unable to achieve political consensus on the issue, they had to shelve their plans for the enactment of the policy. Finally, the Government decided to pass the new FDI policy on multi brand retail in September 2012 to increase investment options in India.

The FEMA notification issued by the Reserve Bank of India permitting FDI in the retail sector was laid before the Houses of Parliament and the same has been cleared without any modification.

The changes in some of the policy conditions indicates government intention to attract more NRIs to invest in retail sector of India and provide a window to foreign retailers to cultivate/ grow the SME segment.

Policy Implications

The FDI policy conditions will have a different impact on the various sub-segments of the retail industry in India. A policy condition might have a low impact in one segment but could be a major stumbling block for another segment. Implications of each FDI policy condition in Mass Grocery, Apparel and specialty stores such as Beauty & Wellness and Consumer Electronics are:

  • Minimum FDI of US$ 100 million: Minimum FDI of USD 100 million and a constraint of maximum 51 per cent stake of the foreign entity imply that the minimum investment required by both, the foreign and the Indian partner together, is more than Rs 1000 crore
  • 50 per cent of FDI in backend infrastructure in three years: Minimum investment of Rs 220 crore-Rs 250 crore is to be invested in backend infrastructure in the first three years to invest in retail sector of India. However, different retail segments have dynamic requirements of backend infrastructure
  • 30 per cent of sourcing from “small” industries: This policy constraint implies that retailers should have at least 30 per cent sales from private label brands or unbranded products sourced from small industries

Policy conditions of 50 per cent investment in backend and 30 per cent sourcing from small industries are the two most difficult conditions to be met for FDI in multi brand specialty retail such as Consumer Electronics, Beauty & Wellness etc.

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